Казахстан, Мангистауская область, г. Жанаозен
Учитель английского языка
Economy is the main priority of our development, and achievement of maximum high rates of economic growth is major task.
From President’s appeal to people of Kazakhstan
II. The main part
1) History of the use of petroleum
2) Beginnings of the oil Industry
3) Zhanaozen is the land of oil and gas
4) If I choose the profession of an oil worker…
Develop riches and preserve the beauty of my land
What is petroleum? Petroleum is one of the most valuable natural resources in the world. Some people call petroleum black gold, but it may be better described as the lifeblood of industrialized countries. Fuels made from petroleum provide power for automobiles, airplanes, factories, farm equipment, trucks, trains, and ships. Petroleum fuels also generate heat and electricity for many houses and business places. Altogether, petroleum provides nearly half the energy used in the world.
In addition to fuels, thousands of other products are made from petroleum. Petroleum is used to make such items in the home aspirins, carpets, curtains, detergents, phonograph records, plastic toys, and toothpaste.
Although we use a huge variety of products made from petroleum, few people ever see the substance itself. Most of it comes from deep within the earth as a liquid called crude oil. Different types of crude oil vary in thickness and colour, ranging from thin, clear oil to a thick, tar like substance. Petroleum is also found in solid form in certain rocks and sands.
The word petroleum comes from two Latin words meaning rock and oil. People gave it this name because they first found it seeping up from the earth through cracks in surface rocks. Today, petroleum is often referred simply as oil, and most of it is found in rocks beneath the earth’s surface.
People have used petroleum for thousand of years. The Bible mentions that Noah used a solid form petroleum called pitch in building the Ark. The ancient Egyptians coated mummies with pitch. About 600 B.C., King Nebuchadnezzar II
used pitch to build the walls and pave the streets of Babylon.
In America the Indians used crude oil for fuel and medicine hundreds of years before the first white settles arrived. In the early 1600’s, missioners traveling through what is now Pennsylvania found Indians scooping the Eastern United States indicate also obtained oil from underground deposits.
The petroleum Industry is one of the world’s largest Industries. It has four major branches. The production branch explores for oil and brings it to the surface.
The transportation branch sends crude oil to refineries and delivers the refine products to costumers. The manufacturing branch processes crude oil into useful products. The marketing branch sells and distributes the products to consumers. Gasoline service stations handle the largest share of these sales. Oil companies sell their petroleum products directly to factories, power plants, and transportation-related industries.
The petroleum industry plays a large role in the economy of many nations and it provides jobs for a great many people. It also is a major buyer of iron, steel, motor vehicles, and many other products. In certain developing but oil-rich countries, petroleum exports furnish most of the national income. Petroleum is also a source of political power for such countries because many other nations depend on them for fuel.
And what can we say about oil discoveries in our country?
The first oil field was discovered in 1979 in the Guryev (present - day Atyrau) region, which is called Tengizchevroil. This was an event of international importance.
Today TCO is the unquestionable leader of Kazakhstan’s oil industry and an important source of public revenue.
TCO employs railways, pipelines and sea transport to deliver its oil to the sea terminals of Odessa the Ukraine and Novorossyisk, Russia, where oil is loaded into tankers for further transportation to the markers of Eastern and Western Europe.
KazMunayGas Join-stock Company is one of the young and swiftly developing national company, which works in the following directions:
- exploration and oil production on sites and fields
- marketing of oil and oil products on the domestic and international markets;
- investment activity in Kazakhstan and abroad ;
- attraction of credit resources to fund capital investment;
The Karashyganak field discovered in 1979, currently produces condensate and gas. Now it is important to improve air quality in many cities and both British Gas and join sponsor, Shell support graduate programmes such as western knowledge and core technical and many managerial skills to local professionals. That what we need in our petroleum industry is technical and professional skilled workers.
Zhanaozen is the town of oil and gas. It is situated in the western part of our country, the peninsula Mangystau. I can say that it is really a museum of treasures and wonders. Many underground treasures are still undiscovered. So oil is the main treasure of our region. Every day I see that a lot of people work in oil and gas fields. I know that this job is very difficult for oil workers. Oil workers work in severe weather. But oil workers salary is around 350000 tenge per month. I think it is a highly paid job in our country.
Contribution to increase in production volume is made by companies in different branches of industry and non-manufacturing business, including oil-and-gas production enterprises. ”OzenMunayGas” an industrial branch, with absolute Kazakhstan participation, is included in number of the largest oil companies of the country.
The majority of company personnel are members of oilmen family dynasties. Love of work, civil responsibility, workmanship is transferred from generation to generation. Many today’s Zhanaozen inhabitants have arrived here at the earliest stage of deposit development from different regions of Kazakhstan, from Russia, Azerbaijan, and Turkmenistan and have made invaluable contribution to enterprise work and development of city.
Now I want you to tell about myself. I’m in the 10th grade. I’m thinking about my future profession. If I choose the profession of an oil worker, what will I do? Firstly, I have to study well, know some foreign languages, because all high-tech is written in foreign languages. Secondly, I would be well-educated qualified and responsible person, because of this I want to be a successful oil worker to have a chance of promotion. If I promoted in my work I would help general welfare of people working in oil and gas industry:
- build modern technological based knowledge schools
- rise teachers’ status
- What can’t money buy? Of course, health. To improve people’s health.
- improve environmental problems of Mangistau region.
In conclusion, people are using more and more petroleum each year, and the world’s supply is rapidly running out. It present rates of consumption continue, petroleum may become scarce sometime in the middle of 21st century. Scientists are experimenting with artificial forms of oil and with other sources of fuel.
I remember everyone who started to develop riches of my native land, who worked at the enterprise for public good. And my duty is to preserve the beauty of my land, its cultural and spiritual wealth, and increase its riches. For successful realization of my dream I will cope with new technical equipment and technologies used in oil and gas fields of the world. I believe that in future I see Zhanaozen modern, prospering town and I shall do my best for it. The care of people health, education of growing up generation, preservation of cultural and spiritual wealth of region – always will be one of priorities of my activities.