Қазақстан Республикасы,Ақмола облысы,Көкшетау қаласы
Ж.Мусин атындағы педагогикалық колледжі
Бұл мақалада қазақ тіліндегі біздің атақты да дарынды жазушыларымыздың шығармаларында қолданылған фразеологизмдерді ағылшын тіліне аударуда кездесетін қиыншылықтарды шешу жолдары көрсетілген.
В этой статье рассмотрены проблемы перевода фразеологизмов с казахского на английский языки и их употребление в поэмах. Фразеологизмы, рассмотренные в данной статье позволит узнать как правильно переводить с казахского на английский языки.
The purpose of this article is to study the general types of phraseological units as a constituent part of the English vocabulary, to examine phraseological units and the problems of translation of Kazakh poems.
The vocabulary of a language is enriched not only by words but also by phraseological units. Phraseological units are word-groups that cannot be made in the process of speech; they exist in the language as ready-made units. They are compiled in special dictionaries. The same as words phraseological units express asingle notion and are used in a sentence as one part of it. American and British lexicographers call such units "idioms". Idioms are a very often used part of the English language. It comprises one-third part of the spoken language. That is why good knowledge of English is impossible without knowledge of its phraseology. Ability in this area makes it easier to read both journalistic and fiction literature. Therefore, for those who learn the English language, this layer of the English vocabulary is of particular interest. Phraseological units can be classified according to the ways they are formed, according to the degree of the motivation of their meaning, according to their structure and according to their part-of-speech meaning.
Phraseological units can be classified according to the degree of impulse of their meaning. This classification was suggested by academic V.V. Vinogradov for Russian phraseological units. He pointed out three types of phraseological units:
a) phraseological fusions where the degree of motivation is very low, we cannot guess the meaning of the whole from the meanings of its components, they are highlyidiomatic and cannot be translated word for word into other languages, e.g. On Shank's mare - (on foot), at sixes and sevens - (in a mess) etc.;
b) phraseologicalunities where the meaning of the whole can be guessed from the meanings of its components, but it is transferred e.g. to play the first fiddle ( to be a leader in something), old salt (experienced sailor) etc.;
c) phraseologicalcollocations where words are combined in their original meaning but their combinations are different in different languages, e.g. cash and carry - (service shop), in a big way (in great degree) etc.
Many English phraseological units have no phraseological accordance in Kazakh and Russian. When translating units of this kind it is advisable to us the following types of translation: aliteral word for word-translation, translation by similarity, descriptive translation. A.V. Koonin thinks that phraseology must be an independence linguistic science and not a part of lexicology. His classification of phraseological units is based on the function of them in speech. They are nominating, interjectional and communicative.
Translation has played a role throughout history any time there has been an intersection of two cultures and languages. A lot of scholars and translators made their article in the progress and developing of translation, however, a lot of them, especially ancient translators, have often remained unknown or in the background. They have done their job with careful efforts despite many violent conflicts that have increase throughout history.
We want to introduce to abroad our country, its history, tradition and culture. We can introduce it only throughtranslations. Only by reading the Kazakh works can foreign peopleknow who are Kazakhs, the style of their life, their thoughts and soon. All information comes only through translation. The maincondition to a good translation is that it should be natural or that itshould read as the original. Translatorshave to be loyal to original text; they should not give the way to liberty.
Translating a phraseological unit is not an easy matter as it depends on several factors: different combinability of words, homonymy, synonymy, polysemy of phraseological units that makes it necessary to take into account of the context. Besides, a large number of phraseological units have a stylistic-expressive component in meaning, which usually has a specific national feature. The previously mentioned determines the necessity to beintroduced with the main principles of the general theory of phraseology.
A phraseological unit is a difficult linguistic phenomenon.Understanding the phraseological units’ artistic role inpoetry, their identification and transfer to another language isnot an easy task. The transfer of meaning and the artistic function of the phraseological units of great poets such as Pushkin, Byron and Abay to other languages need from a skilled translator deep knowledge and poetic talent. Even at early stages of the phraseologicalunits’ pre-translation analysis, the translator starts facing manydifficulties. The main ones are the following: definition of the phraseological units’ structure; understanding their textual, contextual and hidden meaning, content, idea; determiningtheir artistic and functions .
The translator who does not know fully both languages can easily make mistakes. There are frequent errorsfound in current translations of Abay’s phraseology in Kazakh and English. These fall into several types.First, the translatoris not taking the entire phraseological unit as a steady phrase, but rather is dividing and translating itword by word. This crooks the meaning of the phrase.Second, the translator cannot find in the Kazakh languageexisting equivalents of the original is given phraseologicalunits.Third, he perceives the figurative units used in theoriginal language as phraseological units and translates them as they are. The main requirement is that the translator should translate a phraseological unit using similar phraseology of theother language. However, in most cases translators do notmanage to find appropriate phraseological units in the target language.
This old Kazakh phraseological unit “қара қылды қақ жару ” translates as cutting a horse’s tail in half. However, itsfigurative meaning refers to a sense and method of distributingjustice fair and even-handed. This phraseological unit hasexisted with Kazakhs for a long time. In the poem, it serves for deeper understanding of the justice and fairness concept. D.Brodskytranslates this line into English asfollows: “A wise person keenly penetrates deep into things,Breaks the hair into forty pieces”.The single line “ақылды қара қылды қырық» phraseological unit in the original (literally:a clever person would divide the horse hair into forty pieces), in the translation of D.Brodsky takes two lines. The extrawords used in the translation “зоркопроникает глубже всех” (keenly penetrates deep into things) are words that thetranslator added himself. In the Kazakh-Russian dictionarythe word “қыл” is translated as “hair of a horse tail ormane”. In D. Brodsky’s translation, the unit associated withthe “horse” has been missed. Not horsehair but a piece of human hair is presented to a reader. Therefore, in order tomake it more understandable to the reader, the translatorshould have used not just “hair” but “horse hair”. In addition, the translator omitted the “қара” (black) epithet, which waspresent in the original. Perhaps this is because thetranslator has not considered the word “black” in the originalas important enough to translate. In the language system of theoriginal, “black” has a specific meaning. If it is removed, thephraseological unit loses its meaning.In Kazakhstan, we believe that itwould be more effective if the translator removed thephraseological unit used by the author into the Russianlanguage by finding a similar equivalent in Russian.After identifying and studying phraseological combinationsin a text of a poem, the translator must first search for asimilar phraseological unit in a target language that carries anequivalent sense.To return to our example, in the history of any people therewere fair and honest leaders.
Manywriters translates this verse as follows: “A reasonableperson would think all sides”. The translator conveyed theidea of the original not word for word, but in such a way thatthe reader could easily understand it. In this case, although thegeneral meaning of the original phraseological unit wasremoved, the phraseological unit itself has completelydisappeared. Two translators translated one phraseologicalunit in two ways: if writers conveyed the meaning of thephraseological unit in his translation, the others translated the phraseological unit word for word.
In Abay’s poem “Oh, Kazakhs, my poor people” one of thelines entirely consists of a phraseological unit “аузымен орақ орған” (literally: you windbags mow everybodywith your mouth). “аузымен орақ ору” (literally: to mowharvest with one’s mouth) is a figurative phraseological unit.S. Lipkin translates this phraseological unit in thefollowing way: “режетвсехбезразборатвойязык ”(your sickle language mows everybody withoutconsideration). There is “ауызбен орақ ору” (to mow harvestwith one’s mouth) phraseological unit in the literary Kazakhlanguage, and there are also people referred to as “орақ ауыз”(literally: “sickle-like mouth”), which has a totally differentmeaning. “орақ ауыз” means an eloquent, wisecracker man.However, the “ауызбен орақ ору” words combination generates themeaning of “a windbag person who does nothing”. There are contours of semantic content in A. Kodar’stranslation. Nevertheless, he also could not find a full analogue in thetarget language, or at least a similar phraseological unit assured in the original. M.Adibayev translated the same line asfollows: “.несетвздоркоситевсехподряд” (you talknonsense, mow everybody). It seems that the general meaningof translation is somewhat similar to the original. But, if youlook closely, it becomes obvious that the translator was unable to convey the figurative colors.
In this Abai’s poem you can see the “бір ұрттым май бір ұйытқан” (Fat on one cheek, blood on the other) phraseologicalunit. This unit is used to describe a man in whom live thediametrically opposite, contradictory, contrasting qualities; i.e.it is about the type of people who are capable to do goodthings with one hand while doing the evil things with theother.We translates this phraseological unit this way:“Zlonalevoisheke, napravoidobro” (The evil on the leftcheek, the good on the right one). The poet’s “fat on onecheek, blood on the other” idea has been given by thetranslator as “the evil on the left cheek, the good on the rightone”. The notions of right and left do not harm the meaning ofthe original, but you cannot see meaningfulness of thetranslator’s thoughts, his ability to think artistically.
In the deepest sense, Abay is referring to the opposing sidesofcharacter that can exist in an individual and the contrastingperiods of good times (“fat”) and bad or hard times (“blood”)that have existed in the history of the Kazakh people. Whenthe Kazakh read Kazakh’s poetry, they understand this deep and dualmeaning of the phrase. It is the difficulty of the translator intoRussian and again into English to capture this fullest sense ofthe poem and in an artistic manner as well.
Wetried to cover the translation of phraseological units of Kazakhpoems in this article. None of the translators could findin English and Russian languages appropriate phraseologicalunits that would be similar to the author’s phraseology. Thisis because it is extremely hard to translate Abay’spoems into foreign languages. Not every translator, only thetrue masters of their craft can convey to a target language theunique originality of the poetic genius of Abay. Magnetic field of Abay’s poetry does not open up all of a sudden. It is notclearly showed in the text. It is embedded in the subtext orsupertext. It is the translator’s task to find out which variant is closer to the original.
- S.Bassnett. “Translation studies”, Revised Edition. London and NewYork, 1992, pp. 18-19.
2. A.Kaidar. “Kazakh-Russian phraseological dictionary”, Astana: Bilge, 2003, pp. 123-124.
3. A.Kunanbayev. Selected poems. Almaty, 1996, pp. 166-167.
4. A.Kunanbayev.Book of words. Almaty, 2009, pp. 256-258.
5.A.Kunanbayev. Poems. Designed by V.Chistyakov. Moscow, 1971,pp.125-127.
6. I .Silchenko. Abay’s creative biography.Almaty, 1957, pp.56 -57.
7. R.Syzdykova. Kazakh-Russian dictionary. Almaty, 2008, pp.43-44.