Қазақстан Республикасының білім және ғылым министрлігі
Көкшетау қаласы, (қазақ тілінде оқытылатын) Ж.Мусин атындағы педагогикалық колледжі
Шетел тілдері кафедрасы
DIFFERENT METHODS OF ESTIMATION IN TEACHING OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE
Шифр:0111083-«Негізгі мектептің шетел тілі мұғалімі»
Пәні: Шетел тілін оқыту әдістемесі
Ғылыми жетекшісі: Д.П.Рунковская
Дипломдық жұмысты қорғаған бағасы _____
Кафедра меңгерушісі __________А.С.Шахметова
I Estimation as one of the type of control in learning of foreign language
1.1 The importance of control………………………………...........................4
1.2 The requirements and forms of the control……………………….............5
1.3 Forms of control will be different………………………………………...6
1.4 Several kinds of control in the lesson of Foreign Language……...............8
1.5 Different types of control and their characteristics……………………...25
This paper deals with the different kinds of controls and the usage in the class (lesson) of foreign languages. The actuality of the properly organized control of pupils’ achievements gives the teacher an opportunity to get a clear idea of his pupils’ progress in foreign language learning. Analyzing the results of controls or testing, the teacher will see his shortcomings both in methods and techniques applied and in the progress of each pupil. It allows him to improve his own work. In this connection P. Olive writes, “A control measures not only the student’s performance but also the effectiveness of the teacher’s instruction. Control serves a diagnostic function. They show where students have difficulties. They provide information which should lead the teacher to modify his instruction”. Furthermore, control, it is the determination of the level of language proficiency that achieved by the students for a certain period of learning and training. So in addition, control is the part of the lesson that during learning teacher assesses how students have learned the material. The main purposes of control allows:
1) To teachers get information about:
- the result of pupil’s knowledge separately and as a whole;
- the result of their own methods, techniques and the effectiveness on the process of teaching;
2) To pupils:
- To enhance the motivation on the process of learning, so as controls help to determine their success and failure;
- To study more diligently, make correction in the learning process.
The object of the control might be: a) a knowledge that formulated on the basis of language skills (language competence); b) the ability to use acquired knowledge and skills in different communicative situation (communicative competence); c) to learn the country of that language and their cultures, traditions and nations (socio-cultural competence). Not only to learn the abilities to speak on the way of language learning, but also the acquisition of language system is considered as a main object of the control.
The problem of the control: Deficiency of usage different kinds of controls on the process of foreign language teaching.
The features of control: Control in the classroom should reflect the specific nature of a foreign language as a school subject. In the study of academic disciplines that introduce the fundamentals of science, the purpose of determining the level of control is the knowledge acquired in the field of a science in a low degree - formed skills. Assimilation of a foreign language, is referred to the group of practical disciplines provide primarily seizing the means using language in a variety of activities and areas of communication. Therefore, control of knowledge of the language system does not provide information on the practical language possession as the level of communicative competence.
1.1 The importance of control
Control is an important part of every teaching and learning experience. How control helps students learning English can help students in at least two ways. First of all, such controls help create positive attitudes toward your class. In the interest of motivation and efficient instruction, teachers almost universally aim at providing positive classroom experiences for their students. There are some important ways that testing (as a one types of controls) can contribute to this aim. One that applies in nearly every class is a sense of accomplishment. In the early 1970s students in an intensive ESL program were being taught from an unstructured conversation-based text. These students complained that while they had ample opportunity to converse in English, they were “not learning anything”. Soon afterwards, however, periodic evaluation provided them with a sense of accomplishment that ended their dissatisfaction. Controls of appropriate difficulty announced well in advance and covering skills scheduled to be evaluated, can also contribute to a positive tone by demonstrating your spirit of fair play and consistency with course objectives. [1, 25]
A second way that English controls can benefit students is by helping them master the language. They are helped, of course, when they study for exams and again when exams are returned and discussed. Where several control tasks are given, learning can also be enhanced by student’s growing awareness of your objectives and the areas of emphasis in the course. Control tasks con foster learning, too, by their diagnostic characteristics: They confirm what each person has mastered, and they point up those language items needing further attention. Naturally, a better awareness of course objectives and personal language needs can help your students adjust their personal goals. For example, one person might note your strong control emphasis on oral comprehension, and he might also find that he had missed several vocabulary items on a recent test. One logical step would be for him to concentrate on the meaning of troublesome words, especially in a spoken context. Learning to spell them or recognize them in a printed context would become a second priority. So good English control tasks help students learn the language by requiring them to study hard, emphasizing course objectives, and showing them where they need to improve.[2, 95]
1.2The requirements and forms of the control
It goes without saying that control will be effective when it appropriates with requirements of didactic and methods of learning foreign languages. The main requirements in control, it might be objectivity, regularity, differentiated character and clarity and precision in the formulation of control tasks. So, objectivity in control, it means compliance monitoring of the results of training a certain standard contained in the list of requirements to the level of proficiency for different stages of learning profiles. Knowledge assumes of the criteria for assessing students for various activities, compliance with these criteria, minimize subjectivity in the evaluation of students. Objectivity in control provided by:
· Quantitative evaluation of performance. Here, the greatest objectivity achieved by taking into account the number of errors in the speech, estimate the rate of speech and a number of other performance indicators;
· Qualitative assessment of performance (completeness of disclosure topics compliance statements job skill adequately express their thoughts in a given speech situation and etc.). It is possible in the assessment activities of subjectivity of students and the teacher must be prepared to assess formulated choice in terms of the existing criteria.[3.121]
Regularity in control indicates that it has a systematic character. It is known that the intensity and duration of the students to memorize the acquired material depend on many frequency and regularity of control.
Differentiated character in control suggests requirements that followed below:
- Forms of control should be appropriate with those aspects of language or type of that performance which is getting to be checked. Thus, the assessments of language knowledge, especially in speaking part will be checked by differentiated features, but source of controls are its own oral part. For dialogic objects of control might be to understand partner’s speech and definite his/her communicative intention, furthermore adequately influence on partner’s replication, ability to initiate a dialog (to ask questions, make offers, desires, wish and so on). So, for monologue speech the objects of control will be ability to create constrained text from various communicative directions (affirmative, e-mail, essay, composition, discussion). Mainly, it consists of that control from speech will be correctly checked in the process of oral communication.
- Forms of control should be chosen depending on stage of teaching and student’s individual-psychological peculiarities. This kind requirement reflects presence different levels of development. [4.23]
Clarity and precision formulation in control tasks usually define success in the process of control. Sometimes control tasks might be formulated in learners’ native language and installation for carrying out given tasks will assist to have well understanding about tasks. [4.24]
1.3 Forms of control will be different
They are individual, frontage, group and pair. Each of these forms of control accomplished in oral and written forms. In order to determine the level of knowledge’s monologue speech suits individual control: it means learners introduced with text and carry out tasks for test during certain time. Successfulness in carrying out tasks assess with such criteria:
1) Accordance transmitting the information of text content and tasks;
2) Connection and logicality in transmission;
3) Fullness and clarity of transmitted text;
4) Movement information with norms (lexicon -grammatically and phonetic-intonation). [5.98]
Individual forms of control means an effective way of objective control, thus through this kind control determines each learner’s success. That’s why mostly it suits to check learner’s knowledge at the end of the course as a final control. But this kind of control is not so suitable for kid learners, because they are not able to have attention separately. Secondly it is no so effective because while teacher explains one by one for kids, others get noisy. In the auditory individual control will be in oral form, but written form will be at the end of the each new theme. [5.126]
Front control means that teacher fully has conversation and explanation with all learners at the same time they should give answer one by one just sitting on their chair. So effectiveness of this control are ability fully scope while checked; high activities of learners; high rate of execution of tasks. The limitation of front control is that teacher cannot give explanation about task one by one, here if student is not fully pay attention on teacher, they are not able to answer. That’s why front control mostly suits to current control. [6.85]
Group control will be got at the same time for all learners as a group work such as discussion for problem question, make role play for read texts, so teacher should prepare all tasks and their attendance in advance. [6.89]
1.4. Several kinds of control in the lesson of Foreign Language
These kinds of controls are outlined in the books of Shuckin A.N, that he gave preliminary, current, mid-term and total controls.
Aim of the preliminary control contains that while checking learners’ knowledge from language and their individual abilities (mind, attention, interests to learning language, inclination, and common development). So this kind of control helps to determine not only learner’s knowledge, also their individually- psychological qualities, which assists success in the process of Foreign Language Learning.
Current control affords to check learner’s language successes in the process of development and installation speech skills and abilities. This control should be regularly and directed to checking captured certain kinds of educational materials.
Mid-term control is conducted to a finished unit. It affords to check about effectiveness of divided program materials.
The final control directed to installation level of language knowledge that achieved certain kinds of volume of materials as a result in certain period of time (at the end of curriculum). The peculiarities of this kind of control concluded in the direction of determine level of language as communicative competence. That’s why for the final control is used special kinds of tests, which allowed learners to be checked fully.[7,93]
Dictation and its importance as a control
Dictation is one of the guided- writing controls. Most teachers about this technique, but few handle it properly. Actually, this is one of the easiest controls to use, and it gives very good information on the student’s language ability. But this is true only if you prepare it right, present it right, and score it right. You can get good results from a dictation if you follow the steps listed below.(10.136)
Dictation is the transcription of spoken text: one person who is "dictating" speaks and another who is "taking dictation" writes down the words as they are spoken. Among speakers of several languages, dictation is used as a test of language skill, similar to spelling bees in the English-speaking world. Secondary to teaching language skills, the exercise of dictation has also been used to introduce students to literary works, and to instill morals.[11,192]
Despite claims such as these from respected methodologists, dictation is not widely used in ESL programs. Likewise, it has long been ignored in most teacher-training programs. The purpose of this paper is to re-introduce dictation as a valuable language learning device and to suggest ways for using it in an effective and interesting manner.[12,171]
Types of Dictation
Sawyer and Silver define four types of dictation that can be used in language learning.
The first, the phonemic item dictation, consists of the teacher presenting the individual sounds of a language (i.e., their IPA coordinates) to students for transcription. The phonemic item dictation is useful in that it increases the students' ability to recognize the sounds of a language and their contrasts, thereby facilitating their accurate production. This dictation is an excellent way to teach beginners to stop imposing the sound system of their native language upon the sound system of English.
The second, the phonemic text dictation, is an extension of the phonemic item dictation. It consists of the teacher reciting a passage which students phonetically transcribe. The phonemic item dictation is valuable as a way to understand how English sounds change in connected speech. Though it goes beyond the objectives set for students in most ESL programs in the U.S., it is commonly used in English departments in many foreign universities.[12,201]
The orthographic item dictation is the dictating of individual words in isolation for transcription, similar to the traditional spelling test. It is useful for reinforcing the correlation between the spelling system and sound system of a language. In English this correlation is more complex than it is in other languages.[13,86]
The dictation with the broadest learning possibilities is the orthographic text dictation, in which students transcribe a unified passage. This is the classic dictation exercise all foreign language teachers are familiar with. Besides reinforcing the spelling/sound correlations of English, the orthographic text dictation uncovers comprehension and grammatical weaknesses in learners which the teacher can analyze and address in future lessons.[13.94]
Dictation is a valuable language learning device that has been used for centuries. Although linguists have not completely understood how it facilitates language acquisition--it would be extremely difficult to isolate the language competencies that are employed--many have attested to its pedagogical value. One of the 20th century's most influential linguists, Leonard Bloomfield (1942), strongly endorsed the use of dictation as a learning device. Today, many methodologists are at least inclined to agree with Finocchiaro's (1969) summary of its value: "[Dictation] ensures attentive listening; it trains pupils to distinguish sounds; it helps fix concepts of punctuation; it enables pupils to learn to transfer oral sounds to written symbols; it helps to develop aural comprehension; and it assists in self-evaluation."[14,59]
1.5. Test is one of the types of control and their characteristics
Test (from English it means “trial” and “investigation”) – this is the system of tasks, which carried out and afford characterize the level of knowledge of English language with the help of special scale results. Furthermore, tests are used for determination of learners’ ability, mental development and other kinds of personal characteristics. There are four main reasons for testing which give to rise to four categories of test. Placement test: placing new students in the right class in a school facilitated with the use of placement tests. Usually based on syllabuses and materials the students will follow and use their level has been decided on, these test grammar and vocabulary knowlrdge and assess students’s productive and receptive skills. Some schools ask students to assess themselves as part of placement process adding this self analysis into the finalplacing decision. [15,77]
Diagnostic test: while placement tests are designed to show how good a student’s English is in relation to a previouslyagreed system of levels, diagnostic tests can be used to expose learner difficulties, gaps in their knowledge, and skills deficiencies during a course. Thus, when we know what the problems are, we can do something about them. [15,96]
Progress and achievement tests: these tests are designed to measure learners’ language and skill progress in relation to the syllabus they have been following. Achievement tests only work if they contain item types which the studentsare familiar with. This doesn’t mean that in a reading test, for example, we give them texts they have seen before, but it d